CORPORATE DARWINISM  and GIG economy

Nothing empowers a skilled worker like the option to walk out and take a better offer

CORPORATE DARWINISM

The obsolescence I have in mind was anticipated by Silicon Valley’s favourite economist, Ronald Coase. Back in 1937, a young Coase wrote “The Nature of the Firm”, calling attention to something strange:

while corporations competed within a competitive marketplace, corporations themselves were not markets.

They were hierarchies. If you work for a company, you don’t allocate your time to the highest bidder. You do what your boss tells you; she does what her boss tells her. A few companies dabble with internal marketplaces, but mostly they are islands of command-and-control surrounded by a sea of market transactions.
Coase pointed out that the border between hierarchy and market is a choice. Corporations could extend their hierarchy by merging with a supplier. Or they could rely more on markets, spinning off subsidiaries or outsourcing functions from cleaning and catering to IT and human resources. Different companies make different choices and the ones that choose efficiently will survive.
But the choice between hierarchy and market also depends on the technology deployed to co-ordinate activity. Different technologies favour different ways of doing things.
GigBot will talk to your alarm clock; $10 or $10,000, just name the price that would tempt you from your lie-in.
Nothing empowers a worker like the ability to walk out and take a better offer; in principle the gig economy offers exactly that. Indeed both scenarios may come true simultaneously, with one type of gig for the lucky ones, and another for ordinary folk.
If we are to take the best advantage of a true gig economy, we need to prepare for more radical change

MALTAway for your GIG Governance

https://www.ft.com/content/398df8c0-67b1-11e7-8526-7b38dcaef61

by: Tim Harford – thanks for the relevance of this content

Are we misunderstanding the endgame of the annoyingly named “gig economy”? At the behest of the UK government, Matthew Taylor’s review of modern working practices was published this week. The title could easily have graced a report from the 1930s, and the review is in many ways a conservative document, seeking to be “up to date” while preserving “enduring principles of fairness”. Mr Taylor, chief executive of the RSA and a former policy adviser to the Blair government, wants to tweak the system. One proposal is to sharpen up the status of people who are neither employees nor freelancers, calling them “dependent contractors” and giving them some employment rights. In the US, economists such as Alan Krueger — formerly the chairman of Barack Obama’s Council of Economic Advisers — proposed similar reforms. There is nothing wrong with this; incremental reform is often wise. Quaint ideas such as the employer-employee relationship are not yet obsolete. Yet they might yet become so, at least in some industries. If they do, I am not sure we will be ready. The obsolescence I have in mind was anticipated by Silicon Valley’s favourite economist, Ronald Coase. Back in 1937, a young Coase wrote “The Nature of the Firm”, calling attention to something strange: while corporations competed within a competitive marketplace, corporations themselves were not markets. They were hierarchies. If you work for a company, you don’t allocate your time to the highest bidder. You do what your boss tells you; she does what her boss tells her. A few companies dabble with internal marketplaces, but mostly they are islands of command-and-control surrounded by a sea of market transactions. Coase pointed out that the border between hierarchy and market is a choice. Corporations could extend their hierarchy by merging with a supplier. Or they could rely more on markets, spinning off subsidiaries or outsourcing functions from cleaning and catering to IT and human resources. Different companies make different choices and the ones that choose efficiently will survive. So what is the efficient choice? That depends on the nature of the job to be done. A carmaker may well want to have the engine manufacturer in-house, but will happily buy bulbs for the headlights from the cheapest bidder. Related article UK tries to tackle ‘gig economy’ conundrum New report assesses how to protect workers without stifling technological change But the choice between hierarchy and market also depends on the technology deployed to co-ordinate activity. Different technologies favour different ways of doing things. The bar code made life easier for big-box retailers. While eBay favoured the little guy, connecting buyers and sellers of niche products. Smartphones have allowed companies such as Uber and Deliveroo to take critical middle-management functions — motivating staff, evaluating and rewarding performance, scheduling and co-ordination — and replace them with an algorithm. But gig workers could install their own software, telling it where they like to work, what they like to do, when they’re available, unavailable, or open to persuasion. My app — call it GigBot — could talk to the Lyft app and the TaskRabbit app and the Deliveroo app, and interrupt me only when an offer deserves attention. Not every job can be broken down into microtasks that can be rented out by the minute, but we might be surprised at how many can. Remember that old line from supermodel Linda Evangelista, “We don’t wake up for less than $10,000 a day”? GigBot will talk to your alarm clock; $10 or $10,000, just name the price that would tempt you from your lie-in. It is easy to imagine a dystopian scenario in which a few companies hook us in like slot-machine addicts, grind us in circles like cogs, and pimp us around for pennies. But it is not too hard to imagine a world in which skilled workers wrest back control using open-source software agents, join electronic guilds or unions and enjoy a serious income alongside unprecedented autonomy. Where now for the UK’s gig economy? Play video Nothing empowers a worker like the ability to walk out and take a better offer; in principle the gig economy offers exactly that. Indeed both scenarios may come true simultaneously, with one type of gig for the lucky ones, and another for ordinary folk. If we are to take the best advantage of a true gig economy, we need to prepare for more radical change. Governments have been content to use corporations as delivery mechanisms for benefits that include pensions, parental leave, sick leave, holidays and sometimes healthcare — not to mention the minimum wage. This isn’t unreasonable; even a well-paid freelancer may be unable to buy decent private insurance or healthcare. Many of us struggle to save for a pension. But if freelancers really do start to dominate economic activity — if — the idea of providing benefits mostly through employers will break down. We will need governments to provide essential benefits, perhaps minimalist, perhaps generous, to all citizens. Above that safety net, we need portable benefits — mentioned warmly but briefly by Mr Taylor — so that even a 10-minute gig helps to fill a pension pot or earn time towards a holiday. Traditional corporate jobs have been socially useful, but if you push any model too far from reality, it will snap.

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Tips from headhunters to Board Members

Tips from three leading headhunters

Directors must ask the right questions and support — and challenge — chief executives

MALTAWAY BOARD GOVERNANCE AND NON EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR (NED)

Even here in Malta this issue arises with relevant importance and validity , partly because the high number of foreign companies present in Malta, in order to be compliant with international standards for tax purposes (see the case of dummy company and tax inversion) , must have a board of directors with directors and NON EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR , residents in Malta, supporting and providing clear and convincing evidence that the foreign company is effectively managed from Malta.

Furthermore having a NED with international experience in the BOARD, reinforce widely the diversity, independence and compliance requirements for a better Corporate Governance, Leadership and Business results

30+ years Board, Governance, Investment’s  experience and practice for YOUR BOARD needs and solutions

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Virginia Bottomley
Chairman, Odgers Berndtson’s Board & Chief Executive Practice

The former Conservative cabinet minister turned City headhunter joined Odgers in 2000 and has battled to change attitudes towards women in senior roles. Key appointments by her team have included Carolyn Fairbairn as the first female director-general of business lobby group the CBI, Susan Kilsby as chair of pharmaceutical company Shire and Inga Beale as chief executive of Lloyd’s of London, the insurance market.

Ms Bottomley was born in Scotland and educated at the University of Essex and the London School of Economics.

What is your best advice for someone seeking a board position?
Excel in a particular area, whether that is leadership, finance, managing large profit and loss accounts or international exposure.

What makes a successful chief executive or board member?
Courage, tenacity and values. Listening is also an essential and underrated quality. Being in the right stage of one’s career in the right place and at the right time means that luck inevitably plays a role. But truly talented individuals with distinct experience and perspectives will always be singled out.

Excel in a particular area, whether leadership, finance, managing a large P&L or international exposure

Virginia Bottomley

Why has progress in increasing diversity on boards been so slow?
Only five years ago, barely 10 per cent of FTSE 100 board directors were female, so, while it may feel slow, there has been progress. But more work is needed. It is increasingly important to identify those less obvious aspects of diversity, such as diversity of thought, perspective and experience.

There is growing concern about executive pay. Are you concerned that chief executives are paid too much?
Some executives are paid too much relative to performance and the value they end up delivering. Equally, chief executives who create long-term, sustainable shareholder value are worth every penny. We are encouraged to see shareholder initiatives that keep the spotlight on this critical issue, such as the report by the Investment Association earlier this year, which noted growing investor and company concern about the level and complexity of executive pay.

To what extent are headhunters responsible for creating a market struggling to keep a lid on executive pay and to create more diversity?
We put forward the best possible candidates for each and every role based on a large number of considerations, of which remuneration should be only one.

Ultimately, pay is for boards to decide. We act as an independent third party, so play a part in encouraging boards to consider the widest pool of talent.

Raj Tulsiani
Chief Executive, Green Park Interim & Executive Search

Raj Tulsiani has pressed for greater ethnic diversity on City boards, most recently contributing to a review by Sir John Parker, chairman of mining company Anglo American, which recommends that boards appoint at least one non-white director to every FTSE 100 company by 2021.

An adviser to the Metropolitan Police and the Prime Minister’s Implementation Office on diversity, Mr Tulsiani also won the mandate to refresh the board at Transport for London. Before co-founding Green Park, Mr Tulsiani, who is of Indian and French descent, was a manager at Michael Page, the staffing agency.

What is your best advice for someone seeking a board position?
You have to have some of the skills and background, which you can often gain by joining voluntary or third-sector boards and learning the language. People can become pigeonholed as a good hospital non-executive director or school governor, but the difference with company boards is not as big as you think.

Also, understand the rationale behind each appointment. People might think the process of appointing non-executive directors is a meritocracy and that they can turn up and be the best candidate. But there are a lot of opaque and unwritten rules. Ask questions, test the waters and bring something authentic to the table.

What makes a successful chief executive or board member?
Realistic optimism, a strong way of communicating risk, being able to increase organisational trust and being able to see order in anarchy.

Understand the rationale behind each appointment. There are a lot of opaque and unwritten rules

Raj Tulsiani

Why has progress in increasing diversity on boards been slow?
People do not want greater diversity on boards. They quite often want people who are the same but “different” — they want skin-deep diversity. For example, you include women but they all come from upper middle-class backgrounds.

Also, progress has been slow because the headhunters who execute the majority of board appointments have very little credibility with diverse communities, partially because they have no experience of them and they do not understand the differences between mindsets and cultures.

Most search firms have been trying to boost their diversity credentials through marketing and so forth in the past few years. But you do not build insight, resonance and trust through expensive coffee mornings or posts on a website.

What role do headhunters play in increasing diversity and to what extent are they responsible for the lack of it?
Headhunters often decrease diversity, so they are as responsible as the clients. Executive search is also an institutionally prejudiced industry sector, which gives bad or “safe” advice based on “expert testimony” without data or real insight.

It is impossible to have more diverse boards without more diverse supply chains. Look at what percentage of ethnic minorities on the boards of the UK’s biggest listed companies are British passport holders or how many women on boards went to the same six elite universities.

Are chief executives and board members paid too much?
No, they deserve the money they earn and more — but only if they drive performance and inclusive cultures.

Jan Hall
Chairman and chief executive of Heidrick & Struggles/JCA’s UK Chief Executive & Board Practice

Jan Hall sold JCA, the headhunting business she co-founded in 2005, to Chicago-based Heidrick & Struggles in August. Heidrick promptly added JCA to its name, underscoring her power within the City.

Ms Hall’s placements include Marc Bolland, whose tumultuous time as chief executive of Marks and Spencer came to an end in April, and Carolyn McCall, chief executive at easyJet. Before founding JCA, she was a senior partner at Spencer Stuart, another executive search firm.

Try to understand the business in the round — the entire company. And make sure people know you are there

Jan Hall

What is your key tip for securing a board-level appointment?
Understand the business in the round — get to grips with the entire company. Make sure people know you are there.

What makes a successful chief executive or board member?
The ability to ask really good questions in a constructive manner. To challenge executives in difficult times and to support them at others.

What role do headhunters play in increasing diversity and to what extent are they responsible for the lack of it?
The argument has been won that diversity is a good thing. The real issue is getting diversity coming up through businesses. We need the skill sets in the candidate pool to be there. But if boards are focused on looking for diversity, they are more likely to find it.

Are chief executives and board members paid too much?
In a global marketplace there is a real problem with levels of remuneration. In the US people are paid much better so we have to compete with them.

Thx to FT, see the article here 

The Real Cost of an MBA and US ranking

The Real Cost of an MBA

To figure out the true price of a business degree, you have to factor in the opportunity cost.

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After working for eight years in accounting and finance, most of it at PwC, Tully Brown knew it was time to deepen his business skills. So he did what a lot of young professionals in his shoes do: He went for an MBA.

For Brown, who enrolled at Emory University’s Goizueta Business School in 2015, the biggest cost wasn’t tuition, fees, and housing. It was the six-figure job he gave up to attend school full-time. “Being a numbers guy, I actually modeled it out,” he says. “I looked at what would happen, because there was the possibility I’d end up leaving and making the same that I did before going in. I decided it was worth the risk.”

The typical incoming MBA student at Emory earns $67,000 the year prior to enrollment. Multiply that by the length of a two-year MBA program, then add to it Emory’s cost of attendance, and you get $296,536. Using the forgone salaries reported by thousands of recent graduates as part of Bloomberg Businessweek’s annual ranking of the top full-time MBA programs, we were able to create a similar “real” cost figure for several of the schools on our list. Stanford Graduate School of Business had the highest full-freight cost, more than $434,000, because those in its MBA program earned more when they enrolled.

Each year, we rank business schools by polling students on topics such as academics, career services, and campus climate. We also ask employers about the skills they seek in MBA hires and which schools best prepare their graduates. Starting in 2015, we began surveying alumni, asking them how well their degrees had delivered on the promise of a fulfilling and profitable career.

For the second year in a row, Harvard Business School came out on top—and this time by a wider margin. HBS was rated No. 1 by the more than 1,000 corporate recruiters we surveyed and No. 3 among alumni. Competition for the No. 2 spot overall was particularly close this year, with Stanford edging out Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business by less than one index point.

Unlike undergraduate students who are often giving up low-paying jobs to return to school, MBA students are typically in their late 20s or early 30s and leaving well-paid positions. That makes calculating the opportunity cost even more significant for MBA seekers. Because Bloomberg Businessweek surveys B-school alumni on the salaries they drew before enrolling in a full-time MBA program, we were able to calculate the true cost of the degree. Our formula isn’t perfect. It includes the loss of two years’ worth of wages, even though some students don’t go a full 24 months without working, and some have well-paid internships during the summer break. In addition, we weren’t able to factor in financial aid or scholarships.

Schools’ cost-of-attendance breakdowns don’t reflect the income students give up during their time in school. B-school officials say MBA applicants should definitely add that cost to tuition and other expenses when calculating a projected return on their investment. It’s “a large number, there is no doubt about it,” says Douglas Skinner, interim dean of the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, noting that some students may need to take out loans to also cover the lost wages. Still, Skinner stressed that prospective students need to understand that the knowledge obtained through the degree will help boost their earning power not just immediately after graduation but throughout their careers.

That’s why Brown says he didn’t mind leaving a well-paying job at a community bank in Atlanta to enroll at Emory. “It’s hard to know in 10 years whether I get something I want because I have an MBA,” says the 33-year-old who took out $53,000 in student loans, partly so he wouldn’t have to miss out on student networking opportunities like international trips. “But I decided I wouldn’t want to wonder in 10 years if not having the MBA was holding me back—because then it might be too late to do it.”

Although Brown chose the one-year, or fast-track, MBA at Emory, he still went without income for about 15 months. As he’d hoped, he landed a job at an investment bank, where he’s earning more than he did before.

Data from our surveys show that the typical graduate at the schools we ranked earned a positive return on her investment. Alums of the 87 schools ranked this year earned a median $50,000 prior to starting an MBA program and saw that salary rise 80 percent upon graduation. And six to eight years on, the median salary hovered around $145,000.

Students who enroll in MBA programs are usually further along in their lives and therefore more likely to be married. That can make the degree even more pricey. Spouses who quit their jobs and move to such places as Hanover, N.H. (home of Dartmouth College) or New Haven (Yale) to accompany an MBA student may face poor employment prospects.

That was the case for James Mansour, a recent graduate of Texas A&M University’s Mays Business School, and his wife. They relocated from the Washington, D.C., area, where he worked as a consultant and she as a dental hygienist, pulling in a combined $160,000 a year. After the move the couple learned that they were expecting a child and that she’d have to get relicensed to work in Texas. Fortunately, the couple was able to get by on savings by cutting out vacations, dining out, and shopping. Mansour, who graduated in December, now works at Delta Air Lines in Atlanta, and has a higher salary than he did before he went for his degree.

The typical 2016 MBA graduate from Dartmouth College’s Tuck School of Business earned $80,000 before enrollment. So if a student were to forgo that income for two years and pay the full cost of attendance, his or her real cost would amount to $360,100. Matthew Slaughter, dean of Tuck, says that while most graduates receive a large earnings boost after graduating, that isn’t always the case in the short term. “For a lot of programs like ours, there are a lot of people career-switching,” he says. “So that might entail giving up industry- or company-specific capital to really build capital in a totally different area that’s more satisfying.”

Katherine Earle graduated from Stanford’s MBA program this spring. She walked away from a well-paying position in the technology sector to go back to school. Still, she says she’s confident she made the right choice. “I’m already making more now,” says Earle, “and that increase will hopefully continue to compound itself, partly because of the inherent value of the degree but more likely because I had the opportunity to study my personal strengths and weaknesses and career interests at school.”

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-11-16/real-cost-of-an-mba

The Compass of Success the rules to have a successful carreer, while remaining free

The Compass of Success

the rules to have a successful carreer, while remaining free

 

«The most important jouney is not the one in distant lands but within ourselves»

maltaway-gallo-bussola-del-successo

This book starts from powerful questions such as: how can I find out what are my strength and talent? Do you love what you do? How can I understand the complexity of organizations? How can I find a job in a company that fits with my values? How can I build trust and meaningful relations? What is the price you are willing to pay, the difficult trade-off, the time to go? How can I protect my ethical values, while remain free? What really matters? How can I then define a successful career?

The book explains with a creative and engaging mix of coaching, management theories short cases and storytelling, how you can find your compass, you true passion, how to find the job that fully fits with your talent and values. Then the author helps to intelligently use your radar to understand organizations, their cultures, how to decode complexity and build authentic trust and cooperation. The author offers meaningful questions, reflections and many helpful and practical tools to find a job and on developing a moral compass, a solid value system that will anchor you with your jobs, whatever it will be.   Chapters like the “Price you pay,” and “The pact with the devil” will offer practical tools, thoughts and learning about trade-off and difficult choices that everybody will have to make in their careers and, again, how important is to have a strong moral compass. By reading Paolo’s book, the very same concept of successful career will be radically transformed in something very different from our current mental model, more profound and relevant to all of us, not only for few elected. The new concept of what is a successful career and what really matters, will contribute to improving the way we relate to each other as human beings while having a successful career.

In the mist of the 4th industrial revolution, in an age of radical transformation and upheaval, we need to anchor our being to our values. The “Compass of success” helps us to pause and reflect about who we are, what do we stand for and how to remain free.

Paolo Gallo is the Chief Human Resources Officer at the World Economic Forum. The author has been the Chief Learning Officer at the World Bank in Washington DC and Director of Human Resources at the EBRD in London. Paolo Gallo has worked in more than 70 countries and also at the International Finance Corporation in Washington DC and, at the beginning of his c. areer ,at Citigroup in Milan, London and New York. Paolo Gallo is a certified coach at Georgetown University, he graduated from Bocconi University in Milan and Chartered Fellow FCIPD, UK, collaborates with Bocconi University and Hult-Ashridge Business School UK and he is a regular author and for the World Economic Forum agenda Blog, Forbes and HBR Italia

Italian version and deeper details here

Is TALENT management privileging “niceness” and non-confrontation

Every CEO claims to struggle with the challenge of getting the right “talent,” but what does this really mean? Their real concern is:  Do I have the people who will understand my agenda and be able to really change how work gets done, at pace? This is the wrong question.

Individuals can make a difference in an organization, but a social system — particularly in large organizations — is always stronger.

Fundamentally, organizations domesticate people—they condition people to work in certain ways, and they inadvertently perpetuate the status quo. People get tagged as “talented” when they fit in (or pretend to). This ends up exacerbating conformity and fear, and perpetuating the very problems that the CEO is hoping to solve.

Real change requires understanding three dilemmas about “talent management” systems:

  1. They are tribal.
  2. They reward compliance, not creativity.
  3. Most of them ignore the importance of context.

From-People-Pleasing-Conflict-Avoiding-to-Womans-Tribe-Leader-4-730x410

They are tribal.

the size of modern organizations, people are still very tribal — they maintain and seek out small groups of “like minded” people with whom they find comfort, and it’s through these tribes they define their work. Talent thus looks a lot more like currying favor than any deeply analytic meritocracy, even when it comes to senior team ascension. Too often, CEOs say they’re looking to promote talent but end up promoting familiarity.

Smart senior leaders understand this, and they tend to fight and work to get the exposure and familiarity to executives from their “tribes.”  Until senior leaders understand their complicity in this problem, and how the tribalism of their talent conversations contributes to it, their talent systems will continue to cripple them.

They reward compliance, not creativity.

While senior leaders promote and protect their “tribes,” once you get two steps outside of the C-suite, the problem becomes worse.  Talent identification becomes about minions. Leaders often promote and protect the people who make them look good; too often, there are also the people who don’t challenge leaders. “Minions,” if you have not seen the movie, are cute and dependable, but they’re not about to create your future.  I have worked with talent in dozens of organizations on multiple continents, and they’re typically bright, confident, articulate people.  I would propose, however, that they’re not vastly distinct from the masses that work around them.

 Most of them ignore the importance of context.

Some of the most storied “talent factories” in the world — companies like Exxon, General Electric, Goldman Sachs — say that they focus on the best people, but what they really mean is that they focus on people who thrive in their context, and in their social system.  All of these companies have a distinct “type” that they look for –which brings its own risks.  Becoming a talent factory isn’t about hiring or promoting the best people, it is about understanding the DNA of your social system, and building from that baseline.

Understanding your social system and the people who thrive in it is exponentially more valuable, particularly if you want to drive high performance. But let’s not confuse this with “talent.”

To start, spend your next “Talent Review” writing down the descriptors used to label individuals. Here’s an example from an executive team of a global company that was trying to drive stronger execution:

  • “I’ve heard he is not very popular”
  • “She has a very strong personality, and creates too much tension”
  • “How is his attitude these days? In the past, he was pretty negative and pushy?”
  • “He seems like a resister”
  • “He has a nice personality”
  • “____ was very impressed by him”

They realized that the talent that they needed were pushy, demanding and delivery-focused, that their system that had a bias for privileging “niceness” and non-confrontation. The organization, even at the senior-most levels, was inadvertently reinforcing the organization’s status quo.

This happens everywhere.  Organizations cultivate in their talent systems toxic ways of policing the status quo, and then they wonder why they can’t change.  Smart organizations, and truly aspirational CEOs, need to own this reality and spend their resources and energies differently.  Broadly, the talent lenses and approaches we use, drive us toward the wrong, backward looking, conclusions.

Before investing tens of millions of dollars in assessing and looking at individuals, organizations need to pause and understand the limitations of talent management, and build the approaches that help people understand and shape context for different levels of performance.

https://hbr.org/2016/07/3-reasons-why-talent-management-isnt-working-anymore

Microsoft will pay you well as Ceo, GM with +464k or Tech person with +256k

Microsoft will pay you well as Ceo, GM with +464k or Tech person with +256k

Microsoft is on the upswing, thanks to CEO Satya Nadella.

Customers love Microsoft, Wall Street loves Microsoft, and, importantly, developers and engineers increasingly love Microsoft.

Which means that it is attracting some top talent — and continues to pay them the big bucks to keep them around.

Here are the top-earning jobs at Microsoft, with data taken from Glassdoor.

To keep things fair, we chose jobs with only six or more salaries reported on the jobs site, plus a few odd-jobs here and there that are worth spotlighting:

Software Architects design Microsoft’s tools to meet the needs of its customers. They make $179,535, or $256,933 with total compensation, which includes things like stock, bonuses, or profit-sharing benefits.

If you’re a Creative Director, you’re helping Microsoft define the look and feel of its software. You can make $180,789, or $190,869 in total compensation.

If you're a Creative Director, you're helping Microsoft define the look and feel of its software. You can make $180,789, or $190,869 in total compensation.

Microsoft

Microsoft Principal Development Managers have climbed their way up the ladder among Microsoft’s engineering teams, and make $180,812, or $292,500 in total compensation.

Microsoft Senior Researchers have one of the coolest jobs going: They lead scientific discovery into new technologies, like the Microsoft HoloLens goggles. They can make $183,540, or $292,455 in total compensation.

Microsoft Senior Researchers have one of the coolest jobs going: They lead scientific discovery into new technologies, like the Microsoft HoloLens goggles. They can make $183,540, or $292,455 in total compensation.

NASA

Microsoft’s Principal Directors of Program Management help coordinate the teams of engineers working on products and features. They make $185,083, or $303,959 in total compensation.

Microsoft's Principal Directors of Program Management help coordinate the teams of engineers working on products and features. They make $185,083, or $303,959 in total compensation.

REUTERS/Lucas Jackson

Across all business units, which might include functions like Sales or Accounting, a Senior Director title usually carries a $190,201 salary, with $308,470 in total compensation.

Across all business units, which might include functions like Sales or Accounting, a Senior Director title usually carries a $190,201 salary, with $308,470 in total compensation.

PHILIPIMAGE/Shutterstock

A Senior Director of Marketing works under CMO Chris Capossela to spread the good word of Microsoft. They make $195,882, with $339,327 in total compensation.

A Senior Director of Marketing works under CMO Chris Capossela to spread the good word of Microsoft. They make $195,882, with $339,327 in total compensation.

Microsoft

Chris Capossela, Microsoft’s chief marketing officer.

A Product Unit Manager leads up a specific product team, like Xbox Live or Visual Studio. They make $195,946 in base salary, or $310,865 in total compensation.

A Product Unit Manager leads up a specific product team, like Xbox Live or Visual Studio. They make $195,946 in base salary, or $310,865 in total compensation.

Wikimedia Commons

Microsoft is an engineering-focused company, so a Director of Engineering can make $196,677 in a year, or $346,247 in total compensation.

Microsoft is an engineering-focused company, so a Director of Engineering can make $196,677 in a year, or $346,247 in total compensation.

Business Insider

Senior Directors of Business Development can make $203,452 in base salary, or $339,014 in total compensation. It’s their job to help lead partnerships, investments, outreach, and other ways of working with outside companies. Peggy Johnson (below) leads that function at Microsoft, although not all of these employees would report into her group.

Senior Directors of Business Development can make $203,452 in base salary, or $339,014 in total compensation. It's their job to help lead partnerships, investments, outreach, and other ways of working with outside companies. Peggy Johnson (below) leads that function at Microsoft, although not all of these employees would report into her group.

Business Insider/Michael Seto

A Director of Development is a senior manager helping oversee the creation of any new Microsoft product, like the Surface Book laptop. They can make $205,297 a year, with $426,689 in total compensation.

A Director of Development is a senior manager helping oversee the creation of any new Microsoft product, like the Surface Book laptop. They can make $205,297 a year, with $426,689 in total compensation.

Screenshot/Microsoft

Big companies like Microsoft need plenty of well-paid General Managers to keep things humming along. A GM makes $224,928 in base salary, or $464,005 in total.

Outside of the engineering organization, Microsoft pays its other employees well, too. With a new lawsuit against the US Department of Justice, and lots of fingers in other pies, Microsoft needs top attorneys. That’s why a Microsoft Senior Attorney can make $194,308, or $286,470 with total compensation.

Outside of the engineering organization, Microsoft pays its other employees well, too. With a new lawsuit against the US Department of Justice, and lots of fingers in other pies, Microsoft needs top attorneys. That's why a Microsoft Senior Attorney can make $194,308, or $286,470 with total compensation.

Microsoft

Brad Smith, Microsoft’s president and chief legal officer.

Similarly, Human Resources is vital in a company as big as Microsoft. HR Directors can make $175,242, or $241,361 with total compensation.

And, of course, it’s good to be the boss. Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella earned $18.3 million in total compensation in the last full fiscal year. But his risks are tied to the rewards: If Microsoft doesn’t hit sales targets, he stands to lose millions.

http://www.businessinsider.com/microsoft-salaries-2016-2016-4

GM gets aggressive and launches a car-sharing service for the future when no one owns cars

GM gets aggressive and launches a car-sharing service for the future when no one owns cars

Will this model part of the way, MALTAway thinks it is a part of the solution of traffic related troubles in Malta as well

While other car companies have been dancing around the future where no one owns cars, GM is asserting itself and positioning for the win.

“We see the emergence of car-share/ride-share as much more of an opportunity than it is a threat,” said GM’s president Don Ammann during a press conference for reporters.

On Thursday, the company plans to announce a new service,Maven, which pulls together its assembly of car-sharing services into its bet on the future.

GM has tested services where people share their own cars, but Mavens will incorporate that with a twist. Instead of needing to own one, GM will supply cars that customers can rent by the hour or for days. Unlike a traditional rental car spot, there’s no counter or clerk — you just walk up, unlock the car with an app, and go. As long as you return it to the same parking spot,  you’re good.

While a part of GM, Maven is its own consumer-facing name and service designed to compete (and hopefully surpass) startups like Getaround, Zipcar, and Turo, which have pioneered the car-sharing industry.

Maven will work similar to other car-sharing companies, but it’s magic will be in the phone app and in-car amenities like OnStar, said Julia Steyn, the VP of Urban Mobility leading the project.

“A Maven customer would download the app and that smartphone will be used as the key to the vehicle. When you come to the car, you can open the car for you and you can be on your way,” Steyn said.

Plus, the app will include options like remote heating and cooling, so the car will match your likes from the moment you get in, she added.

Rather than blanketing cities in parking spaces, Maven is also tailoring its programs to be designed for the location.

Its residential option in New York City lets apartment dwellers in the same building share a car. For its new pilot in Ann Arbor, Michigan, Maven is installing 21 parking spaces around town and the University of Michigan’s campus to give students and residents alike a chance to rent a vehicle for a short time.

It’s not a revenue-generating endeavor for the company, yet. The cars in Maven’s program start at $6 an hour, so it would need to be driven many thousands of hours before paying for itself.

As Ammann explained, the reality is many people still want to own cars, and GM expects to sell millions of those cars for many years to come. However, there’s also a growing segment of the population who aren’t as interested in buying cars as generations past — and that’s who GM is courting with Maven.

“We do see significant change in consumer behavior,” Ammann said. “And we see significant opportunities as change occurs. We very much as a company want to put some thought into the forefront of that.”

The rebound of GM

Six years ago, GM was on the brink of failure. Amidst the financial crisis of 2009, the automaker filed for bankruptcy, shed its brands like Hummer and Saturn, and tried to turn itself around.

The auto industry looked bleak for many a company. At the same time, a little upstart called Uber was launching in San Francisco.

Fast forward six years and the auto industry is recovering strongly, but the road to the future has changed. Uber claims it will do away with cars, and is alreadymaking a dent in it.

http://www.businessinsider.com/gm-launches-car-sharing-brand-mavens-2016-1?utm_source=feedly&utm_medium=referral

GM Maven

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