Italiani all’estero, il vademecum Agenzia delle Entrate

Italiani all’estero, il vademecum dell’Agenzia delle Entrate

In Europa viene garantita ai cittadini la libertà di movimento delle persone e dei capitali.

Gli Italiani possono lavorare, investire e fare business all’estero, non solo in Europa, segui  www.maltaway.com per scegliere, agire, ed essere compliant, sempre, per ogni reddito e per ogni patrimonio.

Per ogni categoria di reddito e profilo legale , controlla sempre i trattati sulla doppia imposizione tra il tuo paese di origine e quello in cui sei residente

NON tutti i paesi applicano il principio dell worldwide taxation come l’Italia

Sei soggetto allo stesso principio in molti paesi ove sei un RESIDENTE PERMANENTE, anche se sei un cittadino Italiano

Link Correlati

TASSE RESIDENTI NON DOM MALTA

Ecco una parte del Vademecum

LA “WORLD WIDE TAXATION”

Non sempre è agevole individuare immediatamente quale sia il sistema di tassazione applicabile per i redditi percepiti all’estero da cittadini italiani. Infatti, gli aspetti da considerare sono molteplici e le regole possono essere diverse a seconda delle singole situazioni personali, dell’esistenza o meno di una Convenzione contro le doppie imposizioni stipulata tra l’Italia e lo Stato estero nel quale viene prodotto il reddito, del periodo di permanenza all’estero, dell’iscrizione o meno all’Aire, eccetera. In linea generale, possiamo affermare che per stabilire dove un cittadino è tenuto a pagare le imposte sui redditi percepiti occorre considerare il concetto di “residenza fiscale”. In base al cosiddetto “principio della tassazione mondiale” (World Wide Taxation Principle), sul quale si fonda il sistema fiscale di molti Paesi europei e che è stato adottato anche dalla legislazione fiscale italiana, il cittadino che lavora all’estero, mantenendo la residenza italiana, ha comunque l’obbligo di pagare le imposte in Italia anche sui redditi prodotti all’estero, salvo che sia diversamente indicato da disposizioni contenute nelle Convenzioni internazionali contro le doppie imposizioni. Le eventuali imposte pagate a titolo definitivo nei Paesi in cui i redditi sono stati percepiti si possono comunque detrarre da quelle italiane, sotto forma di credito d’imposta, nei limiti stabiliti dall’articolo 165 del Tuir. Art. 165, comma 1: “Se alla formazione del reddito complessivo concorrono redditi prodotti all’estero, le imposte ivi pagate a titolo definitivo su tali redditi sono ammesse in detrazione dall’imposta netta dovuta fino alla concorrenza della quota d’imposta corrispondente al rapporto tra i redditi prodotti all’estero ed il reddito complessivo al netto delle perdite di precedenti periodi d’imposta ammesse in diminuzione”. LA REGOLA GENERALE: tutti i cittadini italiani che lavorano all’estero e che non sono iscritti all’A.I.R.E. (Anagrafe degli Italiani Residenti all’Estero) sono fiscalmente residenti in Italia e devono ogni anno presentare la dichiarazione e pagare le imposte sui redditi ovunque prodotti. Nel caso si ometta di presentare la dichiarazione dei redditi o non si indichino in essa i redditi prodotti all’estero, non spetta la detrazione delle imposte pagate nello Stato estero (comma 8 dell’art. 165 del Tuir). 3 settembre 2017

LA RESIDENZA FISCALE E L’ISCRIZIONE ALL’A.I.R.E.

Come espressamente indicato nell’art. 2 del Tuir (Dpr 917/1986), per le imposte sui redditi si considerano fiscalmente residenti in Italia le persone che: • per la maggior parte del periodo d’imposta (cioè, per almeno 183 giorni all’anno) sono iscritte nelle Anagrafi comunali della popolazione residente in Italia • hanno nel territorio dello Stato il domicilio o la residenza • si sono trasferiti in uno dei Paesi a fiscalità privilegiata (salvo prova contraria).

L’ISCRIZIONE ALL’ANAGRAFE DEGLI ITALIANI RESIDENTI ALL’ESTERO L’A.I.R.E (“Anagrafe degli Italiani Residenti all’Estero”) contiene i dati dei cittadini che risiedono all’estero per un periodo di tempo superiore a 12 mesi o, per i quali, è stata accertata d’ufficio tale residenza. Il cittadino italiano che trasferisce la propria residenza da un comune italiano all’estero (anche se in un Paese dell’Unione Europea), entro 90 giorni dal trasferimento della residenza deve iscriversi all’AIRE presso l’Ufficio consolare competente per territorio. Con l’iscrizione all’AIRE, che è gratuita, si viene cancellati dall’Anagrafe della popolazione residente del Comune italiano di provenienza. L’iscrizione può anche avvenire d’ufficio, sulla base di informazioni di cui l’Ufficio consolare sia venuto a conoscenza. informazioni su procedura di iscrizione, aggiornamento dei dati e cancellazione sono consultabili sul sito del Ministero degli Affari Esteri (http://www.esteri.it/mae/it/italiani_nel_mondo/serviziconsolari/aire.html) o sul sito del Ministero dell’Interno: (http://servizidemografici.interno.it/it/Aire/Informazioni). L’AIRE è stata istituita con la legge 470/88 e regolamentata dal Dpr 323/89. Iscrivendosi all’AIRE si può usufruire di alcuni servizi forniti direttamente dal Consolato italiano all’estero. Per esempio, il rilascio di certificati anagrafici e di residenza, il rinnovo del passaporto, il rinnovo della patente di guida per chi risiede in paesi extraeuropei, eccetera. Inoltre, come è noto, chi è iscritto all’Aire può esercitare il diritto di voto per corrispondenza, tramite il Consolato competente. Di contro, l’iscrizione all’AIRE implica la perdita del diritto all’assistenza sanitaria di base in Italia (è garantita solo l’assistenza sanitaria urgente).

LE CONVENZIONI CONTRO LE DOPPIE IMPOSIZIONI

Per evitare che i propri cittadini subiscano una doppia imposizione, che si avrebbe in seguito al pagamento delle imposte sia nel Paese di produzione del reddito sia in quello di residenza, l’Italia ha stipulato con molti Paesi Convenzioni internazionali contro le doppie imposizioni e riconosce un credito d’imposta per le imposte pagate all’estero nel momento in cui si dichiarano i redditi in Italia con l’applicazione di una norma (articolo 165) contenuta nel Tuir. Le Convenzioni internazionali contro le doppie imposizioni sono degli accordi tra due Stati, attraverso i quali viene disciplinata la sovranità tributaria di entrambi, in base al principio della reciprocità. Oltre a evitare le doppie imposizioni sui redditi e sul patrimonio dei rispettivi residenti, le Convenzioni hanno anche lo scopo di prevenire l’evasione e l’elusione fiscale. Generalmente, le Convenzioni non prevedono che sia un unico Stato, tra i due contraenti, ad assoggettare a tassazione un determinato tipo di reddito (tassazione esclusiva). Per questo motivo, è necessario dichiarare in Italia anche i redditi conseguiti all’estero. La doppia imposizione viene comunque eliminata mediante l’applicazione dell’articolo 165 del Tuir, secondo il quale le imposte pagate all’estero a titolo definitivo sono ammesse in detrazione dall’imposta netta fino a concorrenza della quota di imposta italiana. sul sito del Dipartimento delle Finanze, nella sezione della fiscalità comunitaria e internazionale, sono pubblicate e periodicamente aggiornate tutte le convenzioni stipulate dall’Italia

http://www.finanze.gov.it/opencms/it/fiscalita-comunitaria-einternazionale/convenzioni-e-accordi/convenzioni-per-evitare-le-doppie-imposizioni/

http://www.agenziaentrate.gov.it/wps/file/Nsilib/Nsi/Agenzia/Agenzia+comunica/Prodotti+editoriali/Guide+Fiscali/Agenzia+informa/pdf+guide+agenzia+informa+tre/Guida_Italiani_all%27estero.pdf

 

TASSAZIONE A MALTA PER RESIDENTI NON DOM

TASSAZIONE A MALTA PER RESIDENTI NON DOM

Un chiarimento utile da parte dell’ Avv. Rossella Gianazza, abilitato in Italia e a Malta, partner di MALTAway

I principali sistemi di tassazione mondiali sono due : quello della world wide taxation e quello di territorialita’.

Il sistema tributario della “worldwide taxation ” , si basa sulla tassazione su base mondiale secondo cui si assoggettano a tassazione i redditi ovunque prodotti nel mondo da parte di una persona fisica residente e non solo quelli prodotti nel territorio dello Stato.

E’ soggetto a questo regime tributario ad esempio la persona fisica cittadino italiano residente in Italia che deve quindi pagare le tasse all’erario italiano sulla base di tutti i redditi prodotti in Italia o nel mondo.

Diverso e’ il sistema di tassazione su base “territoriale” che si applica ai soggetti non domiciliati che sono tenuti a pagare le tasse nel paese di residenza solo sui redditi ivi prodotti .

E’ soggetto a questo regime tributario ad esempio la persona fisica cittadino italiano che ha trasferito la residenza a Malta che viene considerato non domiciliato.

Bisogna fare chiarezza sul concetto di domicilio di derivazione anglosassone e non confonderlo con il domicilio anagrafico previsto dal Codice Civile Italiano inteso come il luogo in cui la persona ‘’ha stabilito la sede principale dei suoi affari e interessi’’. (art 43 C.C.)

Un cittadino italiano che sceglie di trasferire la propria residenza all’estero per non essere assoggettato a tassazione in Italia dovra’ pertanto rispettare alcuni criteri base sia formali sia sostanziali ed i principali risultano essere:

  • vivere fuori dal territorio italiano piu’ 183 giorni
  • avere dimora abituale all’estero
  • iscriversi all’anagrafe residenti estero AIRE
  • avere il centro degli interessi professionali e personali all’estero

Pertanto un cittadino non maltese, che trasferisce la residenza a Malta, nel rispetto delle norme in materia, acquisisce lo status di residente non domiciliato detto anche NON DOM.

Come RESIDENTE NON DOM a Malta paghera’ le tasse:

  • sul reddito in qualsiasi forma prodotto a Malta e sul capital gain ivi prodotto
  • sui redditi da fonte estera solo se trasferiti a Malta

Come RESIDENTE NON DOM a Malta NON paghera’ le tasse:

  • sul ‘’clean capital’’ rimesso a Malta
  • sul ‘’capital gains’’ prodotto all’estero e parzialmente o totalmente trasferito a Malta.

 

Ecco la fonte normativa sull’INCOME TAX a Malta

CHAPTER 123 / INCOME TAX ACT / To impose a Tax upon Incomes./ Amended by: XVII. 1994.35

http://justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=8658&l=1

Per specifiche categorie di reddito e casi di doppie imposizioni, occorre fare riferimento ai numerosissimi trattati vigenti tra Malta e oltre 70 giurisdizioni

Per ogni necessità in tema di consulenza legale e residenza per Individui e Imprese contattateci qui

PENSIONI DETASSAZIONE e CONVENZIONE ITALIA MALTA doppie imposizioni

PENSIONI DETASSAZIONE e CONVENZIONE ITALIA MALTA doppie imposizioni
La normativa prevede che i redditi da  PENSIONI  possano essere trasferite all’estero e, in base alle Convenzioni contro le doppie imposizioni fiscali, possano essere detassati in Italia con pagamento della tassazione nel nuovo paese di residenza, salvo le eccezioni previste nei singoli Trattati.
Le Convenzioni contro la doppia imposizione fiscale prevedono generalmente che le pensioni corrisposte a cittadini non residenti siano tassate in modo diverso a seconda che si tratti di pensioni delle gestioni previdenziali dei lavoratori pubblici o dei lavoratori privati.
Per verificare qual è il regime fiscale applicabile alla gestione previdenziale d’interesse è disponibile il testo relativo a ciascuna Convenzione in vigore contro le doppie imposizioni.
Pertanto, il pensionato che risiede all’estero può chiedere all’INPS l’applicazione delle Convenzioni per evitare le doppie imposizioni fiscali in vigore, al fine di ottenere, nei casi espressamente previsti, la detassazione della pensione italiana (con tassazione esclusiva nel Paese di residenza), oppure l’applicazione del trattamento fiscale più favorevole ivi indicato (es. imposizione fiscale in Italia solo in caso di superamento di determinate soglie di esenzione).
La Convenzione in vigore tra Italia e Malta (come quasi tutte le Convenzioni, eccezione solo TUNISIA alla fine, prevede un regime diverso per le pensioni degli ex dipendenti PRIVATI di cui all’art.18 e le Pensioni dei dipendenti PUBBLICI di cui all’art 19 paragrafo 2.
CONVENZIONE ITALIA /MALTA
Articolo 18 – Pensioni e annualita’. In vigore dal 8 maggio 1985 1. Fatte salve le disposizioni del paragrafo 2 dell’art. 19, le pensioni e le altre remunerazioni analoghe, nonche’ le annualita’, pagate ad un residente di uno Stato contraente, sono imponibili soltanto in questo Stato.
Articolo 19 – Funzioni pubbliche. In vigore dal 8 maggio 1985 1. a) Le remunerazioni, diverse dalle pensioni, pagate da uno Stato contraente o da una sua suddivisione politica o amministrativa o da un suo ente locale a una persona fisica, in corrispettivo di servizi resi a detto Stato o a detta suddivisione od ente locale, sono imponibili soltanto in questo Stato. b) Tuttavia, tali remunerazioni sono imponibili soltanto nell’altro Stato contraente qualora i servizi siano resi in detto Stato e il beneficiario della remunerazione sia un residente di detto altro Stato contraente che: (I) abbia la nazionalita’ di detto Stato; o Convenzione del 16 luglio 1981 Pagina 12 (II) non sia divenuto residente di detto Stato al solo scopo di rendervi i servizi. 2. a) Le pensioni corrisposte da uno Stato contraente o da una sua suddivisione politica od amministrativa o da un suo ente locale, sia direttamente sia mediante prelevamento da fondi da essi costituiti, a una persona fisica in corrispettivo di servizi resi a detto Stato o a detta suddivisione od ente locale, sono imponibili soltanto in questo Stato. b) Tuttavia, tali pensioni sono imponibili soltanto nell’altro Stato contraente qualora il beneficiario sia un residente di questo Stato e ne abbia la nazionalita’.
Gli altri redditi seguono le altre normative specifiche previste dalla convenzione.
Ecco il link di riferimento per le condizioni e schemi di residenza a Malta http://www.maltaway.com/ residenza-pensionati-malta/ e gli Advisors di Maltaway , uno studio di consulenza legale, fiscale e di relocation internazionale, con avvocato italiano e maltese,  potranno fornire tutta la consulenza ed assistenza necessaria per richiedere la residenza, l’assicurazione sanitaria  e trasferire la pensione a Malta valutando la convenienza secondo schemi ordinari o speciali nonche’ supportare i clienti per tutti gli adempimenti necessari in Italia e non solo a Malta.

Malta, Italia, Europa: estero e mancata iscrizione AIRE per cittadino Italiano

Malta, Italia, Europa: Residenza estero e mancata iscrizione AIRE per cittadino Italiano

Ogni paese ha le sue regole ben distinte anche all’interno dell’Europa e dello spazio economico Europeo SEE e EFTA, sia per la domanda o permesso di residenza, sia per gli accordi bilaterali sulle doppie imposizioni … ma una cosa rimane costante se sei CITTADINO ITALIANO, ovunque tu sia residente, sono i vincoli formali e sostanziali per NON essere più considerato FISCALMENTE RESIDENTE in Italia

Questa considerazione è davvero rilevante sul lato patrimoniale (la vostra ricchezza, i vostri assets) e sul lato reddituale per qualunque categoria di reddito da quello da pensione o professionale

maltaway donna mare

TRIBUTARIO

Senza l’iscrizione all’Aire non c’è residenza in Svizzera

di Marco Nessi

Non può invocare la residenza fiscale svizzera il soggetto che, pur trascorrendo gran parte dell’anno all’estero, non sia iscritto all’Aire e svolga un’attività professionale, ancorché …

ma anche il contrario

La residenza non dipende dall’iscrizione all’Aire...  L’iscrizione all’Aire non è un elemento determinante per escludere la residenza fiscale in Italia, allorchè il soggetto abbia nel territorio la residenza (intesa quale abituale e volontaria dimora) ovvero il domicilio (inteso come sede principale degli interessi ed interessi economici.

 

Contattaci perchè cambiare paese e giurisdizione richiede conoscenza, esperienza, pratica INTERNAZIONALE, noi ti sappiamo consigliare e proteggere

MALTAway offre servizi integrati di Corporate Services, Tax & Legal, Management Consulting, Governance, Investment, Business Advisory, Relocation, rivolti al mondo Corporations, Business, Finance, HNWIs 

Riteniamo ci siano 4 elementi fondamentali per garantire un supporto unico e di valore alle persone e alle aziende:

  • 1) un team professionale che conosca e abbia esperienze di vita e professionali in Italia e a Malta, ma anche in diverse locations del mondo, per capire se e perchè Malta sia la soluzione ideale
  • 2) offrire un servizio chiavi in mano, capace di supportarvi sia sugli aspetti regolatori e fiscali di Malta, sia su quelli Italiani, per chiudere il cerchio e non lasciare aperti varchi potenzialmente pericolosi
  • 3) operare in loco una minuziosa selezione di partners locali,costruendo partnerships in grado di offrire le specifiche soluzioni necessarie a consentirvi di partire in poco tempo  con la massima efficacia
  • 4) e da ultimo, ma davvero importante, l’assenza di conflitti di interesse e l’ indipendenza sia nei Board sia nell’Advisory

MALTA, a Passport of Convenience

MALTA, a Passport of Convenience

 MALTA Individual Investor (Citizenship) Programme

MALTA way offers you the services of legal advisory for the residence scheme, on the basis of the different formats required by existing rules of the Maltese Regulations, according to the different applicants subjective profiles and citizenship
We advise and assist global corporations to relocate to Malta for the company and their executives or employees, professionals, families, individuals, HNWIs and retirees as well

MALTAway per la tua residenza a Malta

maltaway sea woman

From IMF

“Are you a Global Citizen? Let us help you become one.” You may have seen such an advertisement in an in-flight magazine designed to lure some business class passengers, largely from less-developed economies, into acquiring a passport that can smooth their entry at the border of their next destination. A whole new industry of residence and citizenship planning has emerged over the past few years, catering to a small but rapidly growing number of wealthy individuals interested in acquiring the privileges of visa-free travel or the right to reside across much of the developed world, in exchange for a significant financial investment.

A growing phenomenon

The rapid growth of private wealth, especially in emerging market economies, has led to a significant increase in affluent people interested in greater global mobility and fewer travel obstacles posed by visa restrictions, which became increasingly burdensome after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. This prompted a recent proliferation of so-called citizenship-by-investment or economic citizenship programs, which allow high-net-worth people from developing or emerging economy countries to legitimately acquire passports that facilitate international travel. In exchange, countries administering such programs receive a significant financial investment in their domestic economy. Also contributing to the rapid growth of such programs is the pursuit of political and economic safe havens, in a deteriorating geopolitical climate and amid increased security concerns. Other considerations include estate and tax planning.

Economic citizenship programs are administered by a growing number of small states in the Caribbean and Europe. Their primary appeal is that they confer citizenship with minimal to no residency requirements. Dominica, St. Kitts and Nevis, and several Pacific island nations have had such programs for years: the St. Kitts and Nevis program dates back to 1984. More recently, a number of new programs have been introduced or revived, including by Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada, and Malta, with St. Lucia the most recent addition to the list. While some of these programs have been in place for years, they have only recently seen a substantial increase in applicants, with a corresponding surge in capital inflows.

The price of citizenship

Similarly, economic residency programs were recently launched across a wide range of (generally much larger) European countries, including Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Almost half of EU member states now have a dedicated immigrant investor route. Also known as golden visa programs, these arrangements give investors residency rights—and access to all 26 Schengen Area countries, which have agreed to allow free movement of their citizens across their respective borders—while imposing minimal residency requirements (see table). Although these programs differ in that one confers permanent citizenship while the other provides just a residency permit, they both allow access to a large number of countries with minimal residency requirements, in return for a substantial investment in their economies (see Chart 1).

Chart 1. Pick a country, any country

In contrast, some advanced economies, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have had immigrant investor programs since the late 1980s or early 1990s, offering a route to citizenship in exchange for specific investment conditions, with significant residency requirements. In 2014, Canada eliminated its federal immigrant investor program, but the provinces of Quebec and Prince Edward Island continue to run a similar scheme that leads to Canadian citizenship. And the United Kingdom and the United States continue to run and expand their programs.

The cost and design of the programs vary across countries, but most involve an up-front investment, in the public or the private sector, combined with significant application fees and an amount to cover due diligence costs. The programs in the Caribbean allow for either a large nonrefundable contribution to the treasury or to a national development fund, which finances strategic investment in the domestic economy, or an investment in real estate (which can be resold after a specified holding period). Other programs provide the option to invest in a redeemable financial instrument, such as government securities. In Malta, the program requires contributions in all three investment routes.

Economics of citizenship

The inflows of funds to countries from these programs can be substantial, with far-reaching macroeconomic implications for nearly every sector, particularly for small countries (see Chart 2). Inflows to the public sector alone in St. Kitts and Nevis, which has the most readily available data, had grown to nearly 25 percent of GDP as of 2013. Antigua and Barbuda and Dominica have also experienced significant inflows. In Portugal, inflows under the country’s golden visa program may account for as much as 13 percent of estimated gross foreign direct investment inflows for 2014; in Malta, total expected contributions to the general government (including the National Development and Social Fund) from all potential applicants—which are capped at 1,800—could reach the equivalent of 40 percent of 2014 tax revenues when all allocated passports are issued.

Chart 2. A big boost

The macroeconomic impact of economic citizenship programs depends on the design of the program, as well as the magnitude of the inflows and their management. The foremost impact is on the real sector, where inflows can bolster economic momentum. Programs with popular real estate options generate an inflow similar to that of foreign direct investment, boosting employment and growth. In St. Kitts and Nevis, inflows into the real estate sector are fueling a construction boom, which has pulled the economy out of a four-year recession—to a growth rate of 6 percent in 2013 and 2014, one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. The rapid increase in golden visa residency permits in Portugal, which has issued more than 2,500 visas since the program’s inception in October 2012, has reportedly bolstered the property market, leading to a steep rise in the price of luxury real estate.

However, a large and too rapid influx of investment in the real estate sector could lead to rising wages and ballooning asset prices, with negative repercussions on the rest of the economy. And the rapid expansion in construction could erode the quality of new properties and eventually undermine the tourism sector, since most of the developments include (or are repurposed for) tourist accommodations.

Moreover, inflows under these programs are volatile and particularly vulnerable to sudden stops, exacerbating small countries’ macroeconomic vulnerabilities. A change in the visa policy of an advanced economy could suddenly diminish the appeal of these programs. It’s conceivable that advanced economies could act together to suspend their operations, triggering a sudden stop. Increasing competition from similar programs in other countries or a decline in demand from source countries could also rapidly reduce the number of applicants.

If they are saved rather than spent, inflows from these programs can substantially improve countries’ fiscal performance. In St. Kitts and Nevis, budgetary revenues from the program boosted the overall fiscal balance to more than 12 percent of GDP in 2013, one of the highest in the world. But these inflows can also present significant fiscal management challenges, similar to those caused by windfall revenues from natural resources (see “Sharing the Wealth” in the December 2014 F&D). Such revenues can lead to pressure for increased government spending, including higher public sector wages, even though the underlying revenues may be volatile and difficult to forecast. The resulting increase in dependence on these revenues could lead to sharp fiscal adjustments or an acute increase in debt, if or when the inflows diminish.

A country’s external accounts are also significantly affected by large program inflows. The budgetary revenues can improve the country’s current account deficit, and substantially so if they are saved, and the capital account can be strengthened by transfers to development funds and higher foreign direct investment. But increased domestic spending as a result of higher government expenditures and investment will substantially boost imports, particularly in small open economies, offsetting some of the initial improvement in the balance of payments. Risks to the exchange rate and foreign currency reserves are also magnified as these inflows become a major source of external financing. In addition, rising inflation from economic overheating can cause the real exchange rate to appreciate, lowering the country’s external competitiveness over the long run.

Large program inflows can also boost bank liquidity, especially if the bulk of the budgetary receipts are saved in the banking system. At the same time, they can threaten financial stability in small states. While some increase in liquidity may be welcome, large accumulation of program-related deposits presents new financial risks, reflecting small banking systems’ limited and undiversified options for credit expansion. Risks to financial stability may be magnified if banks face excessive exposure to construction and real estate sectors already propped up by investments from the economic citizenship program. In that case, a sharp decline in program inflows could prompt a correction in real estate prices, with negative implications for banks’ assets, particularly if supervision is weak.

Another challenge is the risk to governance and sustainability. Cross-border security risks associated with the acquisition of a second passport are likely to be the main concern of advanced economies. Reputational risks are also magnified: weak governance in one country could easily spill over to others, since advanced economies are less likely to differentiate between citizenship programs. In addition, poor or opaque administration of programs and their associated inflows—including inadequate disclosure of the number of passports issued, revenues collected, and mechanism governing the use of generated inflows—could prompt strong public and political resistance, complicating, or even terminating, these programs. Programs have indeed been shut down in the past as a result both of security concerns and domestic governance issues.

Weeding out the risks

Country officials can implement policies to reduce and contain the risks small economies face from large economic citizenship program inflows while allowing their economies to capitalize on the possible benefits.

Prudent management of government spending has an important role in containing the impact of these inflows on the real economy, but it should be accompanied by sufficient oversight and regulations to pace inflows, particularly to the private sector. For example, annual caps on the number of applications or the size of investments would limit the influx of investments to a country’s construction sector. A regulatory framework for the real estate market would reduce risk and limit potentially damaging effects of price distortions and segmentation in the domestic property market as a result of investment minimums imposed by these programs.

Changing key parameters of the program can also be an effective way to redirect investments to the public sector, allowing countries to save the resources for future use and to invest in infrastructure.

Saving is a virtue

Large fiscal revenue windfalls tend to trigger unsustainable expansions in expenditure that leave the economy exposed if the revenue stream dries up. Given the potentially volatile nature of these inflows, program countries—and small economies in particular—need to build buffers by saving the inflows and reducing public debt where it is already high. Prudent management of citizenship inflows would allow for a sustainable increase in public investment and accommodate what economists call countercyclical spending—spending when times are bad—and relief measures in the face of natural disasters. As in resource-rich economies, managing large and persistent inflows is best undertaken via a sovereign wealth fund. This would help deal with fluctuations in program revenues and stabilize the impact on the economy, possibly also providing scope for intergenerational transfers.

In any case, all fiscal revenue from economic citizenship programs, whether application fees or contributions to development funds, should be channeled through the country’s budget to allow for proper assessment of the fiscal policy stance and avoid complications in fiscal policy implementation. In particular, development funds financed by economic citizenship programs should have their role properly defined and their operations and investments fully integrated in the budget.

Effective management of inflows, combined with prudent fiscal administration, will also reduce risk to the external sector, by containing the expansion of imports, limiting the rise in wages and the real exchange rate, and accumulating international reserves—to serve as a buffer in case of a sharp slowdown in program receipts. Strengthening banking sector oversight is also needed to moderate risks arising from the rapid influx of resources to the financial system. Caps on credit growth, restrictions on foreign currency loans, or simply tighter capital requirements may be needed to dampen the procyclical flow of credit.

Managing a reputation

Preserving the credibility of the economic citizenship program is perhaps the most critical challenge. A rigorous due diligence process for citizenship applications is essential to preclude potentially serious integrity and security risks. And a comprehensive framework is needed to curtail the use of investment options as routes for money laundering and financing criminal activity. Such safeguards are integral to the success of economic citizenship programs. A high level of transparency regarding economic citizenship program applicants will further enhance the program’s reputation and sustainability. This could include a publicly available list of newly naturalized citizens. Complying with international guidelines on the transparency and exchange of tax information would reduce the incidence of program misuse for purposes of tax evasion or other illicit activities and minimize the risk of adverse international pressure. Countries with similar programs should also collaborate among themselves and with concerned partner countries to improve oversight and ensure that suspicious applicants are identified.

Moreover, to help garner necessary public support for these programs, the economic benefits should accrue to the nation as a whole. They should be viewed as a national resource that may not be renewable if the nation’s good name is tarnished by mismanagement. A clear and transparent framework for the management of resources is necessary, including a well-defined accountability framework with oversight and periodic financial audits. Information on the number of people granted citizenship and the amount of revenue earned—including its use and the amount saved, spent, and invested—should be publicly available.

The ever-surprising effects of globalization have given rise to a new dynamic whereby passports can carry a price tag. Economic citizenship programs facilitate travel for citizens of emerging and developing economy countries in the face of growing travel restrictions and are an unconventional way for some countries, particularly small states, to increase revenue, attract foreign investment, and bolster growth. Keeping these programs from being shut down calls for efforts to ensure their integrity, and the security and financial transparency concerns of advanced economies must be duly addressed. Small states offering these programs must develop macroeconomic frameworks to deal with the potential volatility and inflationary impact of the inflows, by saving the bulk of them for priority investment in the future and by pacing and regulating their flow into the private sector. ■

Judith Gold is a Deputy Division Chief and Ahmed El-Ashram is an Economist, both in the IMF’s Western Hemisphere Department.

This article is based on a 2015 IMF Working Paper, “Too Much of a Good Thing? Prudent Management of Inflows under Economic Citizenship Programs,” by Xin Xu, Ahmed El-Ashram, and Judith Gold.

EU and Monaco sign new tax transparency agreement

EU and Monaco sign new tax transparency agreement

Brussels, 12 July 2016

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Today the EU and Monaco signed a new tax transparency agreement, under which they will automatically exchange information on the financial accounts of each other’s residents from 2018.

This will ensure that both sides are better equipped to detect and pursue tax evaders, who will nolonger be able to hide income and assets in financial institutions abroad.

Pierre Moscovici, Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs, said: “Today’s agreement reinforces Monaco’s commitment to international tax transparency standards. The EU and Monaco have today sent a joint clear signal: we are allies when it comes to tax transparency and allies in the fight against international tax avoidance and tax evasion.”

Under the new agreement, Member States will receive the names, addresses, tax identification numbers and dates of birth of their residents with accounts in the Principality, as well as other financial and account balance information. This is fully in line with the new OECD/G20 global standard for the automatic exchange of information.

Today’s agreement marks the latest in a series of international landmark deals the EU has signed with Switzerland, Liechtenstein, San Marinoand Andorra.

For more information, see:http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/taxation/personal_tax/savings_tax/revised_directive/intl_developments_en.htm

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-2456_en.htm

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http://www.maltaway.com/commissione-europea-malta-deficit-a-11-e-debito-sotto-il-60/The 17 countries with the highest level of government debt

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One of the most interesting and important rankings is actually the level of government debt.

By looking at level of gross government debt as a percentage of GDP, it can indicate how able a country is to pay back debts without incurring further debt.

Basically the lower the debt-to-GDP ratio the better.

Take a look to see who made the top 17 and who beat Greece for the top spot.

17. Iceland – 90.2%. Prior to the credit crisis in 2007, government debt was a modest 27% of GDP. At the time of WEF’s rankings, its debt was still super high.

17. Iceland – 90.2%. Prior to the credit crisis in 2007, government debt was a modest 27% of GDP. At the time of WEF's rankings, its debt was still super high.

Flickr/Jonathan Percy

16. Barbados – 92.0%. The tax-haven nation is the wealthiest and most developed country in the eastern Caribbean, but its growth prospects look weak due to austerity measures to combat the effects of the credit crisis eight years ago.

16. Barbados – 92.0%. The tax-haven nation is the wealthiest and most developed country in the eastern Caribbean, but its growth prospects look weak due to austerity measures to combat the effects of the credit crisis eight years ago.

Reuters

Kierre Beckles of Barbados reacts after competing in the women’s 100 metres hurdles heats during the 15th IAAF World Championships.

15. France – 93.9%. The eurozone’s second-biggest economy has been recovering “in fits and starts,” says the country’s statistical agency.

15. France – 93.9%. The eurozone's second-biggest economy has been recovering "in fits and starts," says the country's statistical agency.

Julian Finney/Getty Images

French fans soak up the atmosphere ahead of the UEFA EURO 2012 group D match between France and England at Donbass Arena on June 11, 2012, in Donetsk, Ukraine.

14. Spain – 93.9%. S&P is confident that Spain’s buoyant growth prospects and labour-market reforms will boost its outlook.

14. Spain – 93.9%. S&P is confident that Spain's buoyant growth prospects and labour-market reforms will boost its outlook.

Reuters

Lidia Valentin of Spain competes in the women’s 75kg weightlifting competition during the World Weightlifting Championships.

13. Cape Verde – 95.0%. The island nation is a service-orientated economy and suffers from a poor natural-resource base. This means it has to import 82% of its food, leading to vulnerability to market fluctuations.

13. Cape Verde – 95.0%. The island nation is a service-orientated economy and suffers from a poor natural-resource base. This means it has to import 82% of its food, leading to vulnerability to market fluctuations.

Reuters

Cape Verde’s Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves speaks during a news conference.

12. Belgium – 99.8%. The country is known as “the sick man of Europe,” because while the government managed to reduce the budget deficit from a peak of 6% of GDP in 2009 to 3.2% — its debt is still incredibly high.

12. Belgium – 99.8%. The country is known as "the sick man of Europe," because while the government managed to reduce the budget deficit from a peak of 6% of GDP in 2009 to 3.2% — its debt is still incredibly high.

Reuters

Honda Moto3 rider Livio Loi of Belgium falls during the Japanese Grand Prix.

11. Singapore – 103.8%. It’s one of the wealthiest countries in the world but the island nation suffers from high debt. The government is now trying to find new ways to grow the economy and raise productivity.

11. Singapore – 103.8%. It's one of the wealthiest countries in the world but the island nation suffers from high debt. The government is now trying to find new ways to grow the economy and raise productivity.

Getty

Yang Wang of China shows his dejection just before the finish line.

10. United States – 104.5%. The US hiked interest rates for the first time in seven years in December last year. In March, Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen said the economy was on a path of slow and steady growth.

10. United States – 104.5%. The US hiked interest rates for the first time in seven years in December last year. In March, Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen said the economy was on a path of slow and steady growth.

REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque

9. Bhutan – 110.7%. The small Asian economy is closely linked to India and depends heavily on it for financial assistance and foreign labourers for infrastructure.

9. Bhutan – 110.7%. The small Asian economy is closely linked to India and depends heavily on it for financial assistance and foreign labourers for infrastructure.

Reuters

King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, left, kisses Queen Jetsun Pema in front of thousands of residents gathered for the third day of their wedding ceremony at the Changlimithang stadium in Bhutan’s capital, Thimphu, on October 15, 2011.

8. Cyprus – 112.0%. The country’s excessive exposure to Greece hit it hard when the European sovereign-debt crisis rippled across the world in 2010. Like Greece, it had to be bailed out by international creditors and enforce capital controls and austerity measures to get funding.

8. Cyprus – 112.0%. The country's excessive exposure to Greece hit it hard when the European sovereign-debt crisis rippled across the world in 2010. Like Greece, it had to be bailed out by international creditors and enforce capital controls and austerity measures to get funding.

AP Images

7. Ireland – 122.8%. The country exited its bailout programme two years ago but still faces a huge debt pile. But it’s on the right track. Ireland has already had success in refinancing a large amount of banking-related debt.

6. Portugal – 128.8%. Portugal exited its own bailout programme in the middle of 2014. However, GDP was still 7.8% lower than it was at the end of 2007.

6. Portugal – 128.8%. Portugal exited its own bailout programme in the middle of 2014. However, GDP was still 7.8% lower than it was at the end of 2007.

AP Photo/Armando Franca

Portuguese Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho, center, and Deputy Prime Minister Paulo Portas, right, wave during an election campaign march in Lisbon, Portugal, Friday, October 2, 2015.

5. Italy – 132.5%. The country’s proportion of debt to GDP is the second highest in the Eurozone.

5. Italy – 132.5%. The country's proportion of debt to GDP is the second highest in the Eurozone.

REUTERS/Max Rossi

4. Jamaica – 138.9%. The services industry accounts for 80% of GDP, but high crime, corruption, and large-scale unemployment drag the country’s growth down. The International Monetary Fund said Jamaica has to reform its tax system, among other things.

4. Jamaica – 138.9%. The services industry accounts for 80% of GDP, but high crime, corruption, and large-scale unemployment drag the country's growth down. The International Monetary Fund said Jamaica has to reform its tax system, among other things.

Reuters

People wait for the unveiling of a statue of late reggae legend Bob Marley in Kingston February 8, 2015.

3. Lebanon – 139.7%. The country used to be a tourist destination but war in Syria and domestic political turmoil have led to a lack of an official budget for months.

3. Lebanon – 139.7%. The country used to be a tourist destination but war in Syria and domestic political turmoil have led to a lack of an official budget for months.

REUTERS/Mohamed Azakir

Lebanese singer Mouin Shreif waves the Lebanese national flag during a protest against corruption and against the government’s failure to resolve a crisis over rubbish disposal, near the government palace in Beirut, Lebanon, August 23, 2015.

2. Greece – 173.8%. The country has taken over €320 billion worth of bailout cash and it’s looking increasingly impossible to pay it all back — especially since it has had to implement painful austerity measures to get its loans. But it’s surprisingly not the worse country in the world for government debt.

2. Greece – 173.8%. The country has taken over €320 billion worth of bailout cash and it's looking increasingly impossible to pay it all back — especially since it has had to implement painful austerity measures to get its loans. But it's surprisingly not the worse country in the world for government debt.

REUTERS/Cathal McNaughton

A woman smokes a cigarette in front of a postcard display in the village of Fira on the Greek island of Santorini, Greece, July 2, 2015.

1. Japan – 243.2%. The country is in a troubling spot. Its economy is growing very slowly and now the central bank has implemented negative interest rates.

1. Japan – 243.2%. The country is in a troubling spot. Its economy is growing very slowly and now the central bank has implemented negative interest rates.

Reuters

An amateur sumo wrestler holds a baby during a baby-crying contest at Sensoji temple in Tokyo, May 30, 2015.